Turkmenistan, also known as Turkmenia.
Turkmenistan is located in Central Asia,
The reason for naming the country
The name of Turkmenistan, Turkmen or Türkmenistan can be divided into two components:
"Türkmen" and the Persian suffix "-stan" meaning "place of" or "country".
The name "Turkmen" comes from Turk, plus the Sogdian suffix -men, meaning "almost Turk", about their status outside the Turkish dynastic system.
However, some scholars argue the suffix is an intensifier, changing the meaning of Türkmen to "pure Turks" or "the Turkish Turks."
The Flag of Turkmenistan was adopted on February 19, 1992.
The current flag was adopted on January 24, 2001.
The flag consists of a green background with a vertical red stripe
near the hoist side,
the red stripe containing five carpet guls (patterns used while
manufacturing carpets) stacked above two crossed olive branches;
a white crescent moon and five white five-pointed stars appear in
the upper field, to the fly side of the red stripe
The red and the green colors featured on the flag have historically
been highly revered by the people of Turkmenistan.
The five carpet guls represent the country’s five major tribes: Teke, Yomut, Saryk, Chowdur, and Arsary.
The addition of the wreath, which is against the country's heraldry rules, symbolizes Turkmenistan's “status of permanent neutrality."
The waxing moon is a symbol of the hope of a bright future of Turkmenistan, and the five stars represent the nation’s five provinces.
There is no official religion in Turkmenistan.
Although most of Turkmenistan’s population is Muslim, there is a general low adherence to the religion in the country. Muslims in Turkmenistan do not strictly attend religious services.
Most of the population are Muslims adhering to Sunni Islam.
Other minority religion in Turkmenistan is Christianity and Jewish, Christianity is the largest minority religion in the country, while the majority are Orthodox Christians, Roman Catholics or Lutherans. Smaller Christian communities are Jehovah’s Witnesses, Baptists, and Pentecostals. A small population in Turkmenistan identifies as Jewish while other identify with Hare Krishna and Bahá’í faith.
Turkmen is the official language of Turkmenistan, although Russian still is widely spoken in cities as a "language of inter-ethnic communication".
Turkmen is spoken by most of the population.
Other languages are spoken in the country are Russian, Uzbek, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Azerbaijani, Armenian, Northern Kurdish, Lezgian, Persian, Belarusian, Erzya, Korean, Bashkir, Karakalpak, Ossetic, Dargwa, Lak, Tajik, Georgian, Lithuanian, Tabasaran, Dungan.
Turkmen new manat (TMT)
Unitary dominant-party presidential constitutional secular republic.
In Turkmenistan, the climate is arid continental, with cold winters and hot sunny summers. Being that the country is subject to different air masses, the weather is unstable and there can be cold spells as well as heatwaves. The wind can be strong and can raise dust storms.
Much of Turkmenistan is occupied by the Karakum Desert, where the temperature in summer can reach as high as 50 °C (122 °F).
The coasts of the Caspian Sea are desert as well, but they are milder in winter, while they are a bit less hot but more humid in summer.
Winter is cold in the north, while it is milder in the center and the south. The average temperature in January drops below freezing (0 °C or 32 °F) in the north, while it rises to around 5/6 °C (41/43 °F) in the south. Snowfalls may occur, but they are generally not sufficient because of the aridity of the climate.
Summer is hot everywhere: the daily average temperature in July is around 27/28 °C (81/82 °F) in the north and on the shores of the Caspian Sea, while it can even exceed 30 °C (86 °F) in the center and south. The mildest area of the country is the south-west, where the climate is less cold in winter and less hot but more humid in summer because of the swampy areas that are found there as well as of the waters of the Caspian Sea.
In the south, in the mountain ranges, such as Kopet Dag (or Turkmen-Khorasan), from whose slopes hot winds can descend, leading to rapid increases in temperature. Another mountain range, Köýtendag (or Kugitangtau), lies in the east and reaches its highest point in Mount Aýrybaba, which is the highest mountain of the country.
On the other hand, no obstacles are found to the north, so cold air masses of Siberian origin can easily reach the country, from April to October, but more likely from November to March.
The best times to visit Turkmenistan are spring and autumn in order to avoid the extreme temperatures typical of the country, and in particular, the months of April and October, bearing in mind that in any case, it can get cold at night, especially in the north, and hot during the day, especially in the south. In the capital and in the south, where the hot season is longer, you can choose the periods from mid-March to mid-April and from mid-October to mid-November.
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