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Updated: Sep 14, 2022

Home> Countries> Asia> Turkmenistan

Country Name

Turkmenistan, also known as Turkmenia.


Turkmenistan is located in Central Asia, it is bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.



Reason for Naming the country

The name of Turkmenistan, Turkmen, or Türkmenistan can be divided into two components: "Türkmen" and the Persian suffix "-stan" meaning "place of" or "country". The name "Turkmen" comes from Turk, plus the Sogdian suffix -men, meaning "almost Turk", about their status outside the Turkish dynastic system.

However, some scholars argue the suffix is an intensifier, changing the meaning of Türkmen to "pure Turks" or "the Turkish Turks."


The Flag of Turkmenistan was adopted on February 19, 1992, The current flag was adopted on January 24, 2001.

The flag consists of a green background with a vertical red stripe

near the hoist side, the red stripe containing five carpet guls (patterns used while manufacturing carpets) is stacked above two crossed olive branches;

a white crescent moon and five white five-pointed stars appear in the upper field, to the fly side of the red stripe, The red and the green colors featured on the flag have historically been highly revered by the people of Turkmenistan.

The five carpet guls represent the country’s five major tribes: Teke, Yomut, Saryk, Chowdur, and Arsary.

The addition of the wreath, which is against the country's heraldry rules, symbolizes Turkmenistan's “status of permanent neutrality."

The waxing moon is a symbol of the hope of a bright future for Turkmenistan, and the five stars represent the nation’s five provinces.


Turkmen is the official language of Turkmenistan, although Russian still is widely spoken in cities as a "language of inter-ethnic communication". Turkmen is spoken by most of the population. Other languages spoken in the country are Russian, Uzbek, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Azerbaijani, Armenian, Northern Kurdish, Lezgian, Persian, Belarusian, Erzya, Korean, Bashkir, Karakalpak, Ossetic, Dargwa, Lak, Tajik, Georgian, Lithuanian, Tabasaran, Dungan.


There is no official religion in Turkmenistan.

Although most of Turkmenistan’s population is Muslim, there is a general low adherence to the religion in the country. Muslims in Turkmenistan do not strictly attend religious services. Most of the population are Muslims adhering to Sunni Islam.

Another minority religion in Turkmenistan is Christianity and Jewish, Christianity is the largest minority religion in the country, while the majority are Orthodox Christians, Roman Catholics, or Lutherans. Smaller Christian communities are Jehovah’s Witnesses, Baptists, and Pentecostals. A small population in Turkmenistan identifies as Jewish while others identify with Hare Krishna and Bahá’í faith.