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Updated: Sep 15, 2022

Home> Countries> Asia> Syria

Country Name

Syria, or officially the Syrian Arab Republic.


Syria is located in Western Asia. It borders Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Palestine and Israel to the southwest.



Reason for Naming

The name "Syria" historically referred to a wider region, broadly synonymous with the Levant, and known in Arabic as Al-Sham.

Several sources indicate that the name Syria is derived from the 8th century BC Luwian term "Sura/i", and the derivative ancient Greek name: Sýroi, both of which were originally derived from Aššūrāyu (Assyria) in northern Mesopotamia.

However, from the Seleucid Empire (323–150 BC), this term was also applied to The Levant, and from this point, the Greeks applied the term without distinction between the Assyrians of Mesopotamia and the Arameans of the Levant.


The first use of the current flag design was on 22 February 1958. The last adoption of the current Syrian flag was on 30 March 1980.

Since its first adoption, variations of the red-white-black flag have been used in various Arab Unions of Syria with Egypt, Sudan, Yemen, Libya* and Iraq.

The Syrian flag is composed of three horizontal stripes of red, white, and

black, and there are two green five-pointed stars in the middle of the

white stripe. The red represents the Hashemite dynasty and the struggle for independence, the white representative of the Umayyad dynasty, and a bright future, the green stars represent the Fatimid dynasty, with one star standing for Egypt and the other for Syria. Finally, black is a representation of the Abbasid dynasty and oppression of the nation.

*(The flag is identical to the flag of Libya from 1969–to 1972.)


Arabic is the official language of the country. Modern Standard Arabic is recognized as the language of the education system, although it is not native to all of the country’s inhabitants. The language managed to spread to other regions of Syria in the 7th century when Muslims settled the nation. Syrian Arabic is written from right to left, although the Arabic numbers are drafted from left to right. Minority languages of Syria are Kurdish, Aramaic, Assyrian, English and French are widely spoken as second languages, they are used in educated Syrian circles, particularly in Aleppo and Damascus. Of the two, English is more popular.