Updated: Sep 15
Somalia or officially the Federal Republic of Somalia.
Somalia is located in eastern Africa in the Horn of Africa, It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, the Gulf of Aden, and Yemen to the north, Djibouti, and Eritrea to the northwest, Kenya to the southwest, and the Indian Ocean to the southeast.
The flag of Somalia was adopted on October 12, 1954.
The flag consists of a light blue background and a white five-pointed
star in the center of the flag. The white star was chosen as the national symbol, each of its five points represents one of the areas where Somalis live today. These areas are Northern and southern Somalia, northern Kenya, Southern Ethiopia, and Djibouti.
The white color of the star also indicates peace and prosperity.
The blue color refers to the United Nations, which managed part of Somalia for many years.
Somali and Arabic are the official languages of Somalia.
The Somali language is the mother tongue of the Somali people, the nation's most populous ethnic group. It is an Afro-Asiatic language that belongs to the Cushitic branch of languages. The Saho and the Afar languages are their closest relatives.
There are three main dialect groups of the Somali language; Northern Somali is the closest to Standard Somali. Coastal Somali, also known as Benadir, is spoken in Somalia’s coastal region of Benadir. The Maay dialect group of Somali is spoken by the Mirifle and Digil clans in parts of southern Somalia.
English is the most popular foreign language in Somalia. It is taught in many schools across the country.
Italian was the official language spoken in Italian Somaliland, after the independence of Somalia, the use of the Italian language in the country has greatly decreased.
Islam is the state religion in the country and Islamic sharia governs the country’s legal system. Any law that goes against the basic tenets of Shari’a will not be enacted in the country.
The majority of Muslims in Somalia are Sunni, and Sufism is also quite popular, also, there is a small population of Shia Muslims who live in the country. Islam arrived in Somalia at a very early time, soon after the hijra which refers to Prophet Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina.
A very small population, representing only about 0.01% of the entire population practices Christianity. The religion came to Somalia only recently. There were virtually no Christians in the nation at about 1913.
Other religions include Hinduism, Buddhism, and Judaism.
Only a very small percentage (0.1%) of Somalians adhere to their traditional religions and beliefs. Such religions teach belief in the Supreme being, ancestral worship, magic, and curses.
Most of these believers are non-Somali in origin and are mainly settled in the southern parts of the country where they practice animism.
Somali shilling (SOS).
Federal parliamentary republic.
In Somalia, the climate is tropical, and hot all year round, in addition, it is generally dry. Rainfall is generally limited, typical of a desert or semi-desert climate in vast areas, while the wettest areas are occupied by savannah.
Rainfall occurs in two periods, from March to late May and from October to early December.
Typically, the wettest months are April-May and October-November
The best time to visit Somalia in its entirety is winter, from December to February, to avoid both the summer heat in the north and the rains of the transitional seasons.
It is worthwhile to recall that in the mountainous northern area, nights can be cold, while in the inland southwestern areas, the climate in this period is hot. Moreover, in December, especially in the first half, tropical cyclones are still possible.