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Updated: Sep 20, 2022

Home> Countries> Africa> Niger

Country Name

Niger, or officially the Republic of the Niger.


Niger is a landlocked country in West Africa. It is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Algeria to the northwest, Chad to the east, Nigeria to the South, Benin to the southwest, Mali, and Burkina Faso to the west.



The reason for naming the country

Niger is named after the Niger River which flows through the country's west; the origin of the river's name is uncertain, though a popular theory is that it comes from the Tuareg n'eghirren, meaning 'flowing water.


The flag of Niger was adopted on 23 November 1959, a year before gaining its independence in 1959. The flag consists of three horizontal stripes in orange, white, and green. In the middle of the white stripe, an orange circle is placed. The orange color represents the Sahara Desert in the north, white represents purity, and the green represents hope or Nigerian vegetation in the southern parts of the country. The orange circle represents the bright sun illuminating the local rivers and landscape. The three stripes also represent the three main regions of the country.

*Flag fact:

-The flag of Niger is similar to the flag of India, both consist of three horizontal bands of color which are orange, white, and green. Both flags also incorporate a circular symbol at the center of the flag. The significant difference between the two flags is that the symbol on the Indian flag features a navy blue Ashoka Chakra at the center whereas the symbol on the flag of Niger features an orange roundel.


French, is the official language in Niger, it is spoken mainly as a second language by people who have received a formal western education and serves as the administrative language. Niger has ten recognized national languages: Arabic, Buduma, Fulfulde, Gourmanchéma, Hausa, Kanuri, Zarma & Songhai, Tamasheq, and Tassawaq Tebu. Each is spoken as a first language primarily by the ethnic group with which it is associated.


Although Niger is a secular country, Islam is the most dominant religion, practiced by 99.3% of the population. The majority of Muslims in Niger are Sunni, then Shi'a, and Ahmadiyya. The other two main religions of Niger are Christianity, and Animism (traditional indigenous religious beliefs).


West African CFA franc (XOF).