Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq.
Iraq is located in Western Asia.
and Syria to the west.
The reason for naming the country
There are several suggested origins for the name. One dates to the Sumerian city of Uruk (Biblical Hebrew Erech) and is thus ultimately of Sumerian origin, as Uruk was the Akkadian name for the Sumerian city of Urug, containing the Sumerian word for "city".
Another possible etymology for the name is from the Middle Persian word erag, meaning "south."
An Arabic folk etymology for the name is "deeply rooted, well-watered; fertile ".
The first use of the flag was on 31 July 1963, and the most recent version
of the flag was adopted on 29 January 2008.
The flag consists of three horizontal stripes of red, white, and black colors.
In the middle stripe- the white one-there is the Takbir word, Allahu Akbar,
("Allah is the greatest") in green Kufic script.
The Black color represents oppression and triumph,
the white color represents a bright future and generosity,
the Red color represents the blood of martyrs, and
the Green color represents Islam.
*(The flag is identical to the flag of Libya from 1969–1972.)
The constitution of Iraq recognizes Islam as the official religion in the country, and states that no law may be enacted that contradicts the provisions of the Islamic religion. However, it guarantees freedom of religious beliefs and practices of other non-Muslim groups.
Today, Shia Islam stands as a dominant religion in Iraq. More than half of the population of Iraq are Shiite Muslims.
Other religions found in Iraq include the Nestorian Christians, Jacobite Christians, Mandaeans, Shabakis, Kakais, and atheists.
The Arabic language and the Kurdish language are the two official languages of Iraq, followed by the Iraqi Turkmen slang of Turkish, and the Neo-Aramaic languages (specifically Chaldean and Assyrian).
Arabic and Kurdish are written with versions of Arabic script. Since 2005, the Turkmen have switched from the Arabic script to the Turkish alphabet. Also, the Neo-Aramaic languages use the Syriac script.
Other smaller minority languages include Mandaic, Shabaki, Armenian, Circassian, and Persian.
Iraqi dinar (IQD)
Democratic, federal parliamentary republic.
Most of Iraq has a hot arid climate with a subtropical influence.
Summer temperatures average above 40 °C for most of the country and frequently exceed 48 °C.
Winter temperatures rarely exceed 21 °C with maxima roughly 15 to 19 °C and night-time lows 2 to 5 °C.
As regards the temperatures, the best times to visit Iraq are spring and autumn: in the north the best months are April and from mid-October to mid-November, while in the center and south they are March and November. Sometimes, however, in these periods, it can rain, especially in the north. In May and October, the temperatures are already well above 30 °C (86 °F) and can already approach 40 °C (104 °F); on the other hand, it almost never rains.
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