Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia.
Estonia is a country on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland,
Reason For Naming the country
The name Estonia has been connected to Aesti, first mentioned by the Roman historian Tacitus around 98 AD. Some historians believe he was directly referring to Balts (i.e. not Finnic-speaking Estonians), while others have proposed that the name applied to the whole Eastern Baltic region.
The Scandinavian legends referring to Eistland were the earliest sources to use the name in its modern meaning.
The toponym Estland/Eistland has been linked to Old Scandinavian eist, austr meaning "the east".
The first use of the current flag design was on 21 November 1918.
The Flag of Estonia was adopted on 7 August 1990.
Estonia flag consists of three equal horizontal stripes of blue, black, and white.
The blue color represents the Estonian sea, sky, and lakes and sometimes it is also
considered a symbol of honesty.
The black color represents the sorrows of the Estonian population but it also refers
to the traditional black vest of local farmers.
The white represents the snow, which covers Estonian soil for a large part of the year, and it also expresses the desire for freedom.
Estonia has a diverse religious history, but recently it becomes increasingly secular, with a majority of the population declaring themselves nonreligious.
The largest minority groups are the various Christian denominations, principally Lutheran and Orthodox Christians, with very small numbers of adherents in non-Christian faiths, namely Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism.
Standard Estonian is the official language of Estonia, it has several dialects. The North Estonian language is closer to the standard Estonian than the South Estonian. The latter has several dialects like the Võro, Tartu, and Mulgi.
The most common foreign languages learned by Estonian students are English, Russian, German, and French. Other popular languages include Finnish, Spanish, and Swedish.
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Unitary parliamentary republic
In Estonia, the climate is Baltic, slightly continental, with cold winters and mild, moderately rainy summer. The climate is fairly similar, but the western coastal areas, are a bit milder because it receives a greater maritime influence.
In winter the weather is very cold: the temperature remains below freezing (0 °C or 32 °F) even during the day for long periods. The average temperature in January and February is around -1 °C (30 °F) on the two main islands (Hiiumaa, Saaremaa), around -3 °C (26.5 °F) on the coast of the Gulf of Riga, -4.5 °C (23.5 °F) in Tallinn and on the north coast, and finally it drops to -6 °C (21 °F) in the inland north-eastern areas.
The cold air masses coming from the Arctic or from Russia move over the country, lowering the temperature to about -20 °C (-4 °F). The cold records are respectable: in the worst moments, the temperature can jump to -40 °C (-40 °F). The month when the sun is lowest above the horizon and the days are shortest in December, while the coldest month is February, as is often the case in Nordic countries.
Summer is a pleasant season since the maximum temperatures hover around 20/22 °C (68/72 °F), which means that they are suitable for outdoor activities. Nights are cool, with minimum temperatures around 11/12 °C (52/54 °F), which rise to 14 °C (57 °F) on the west coast.
In spite of this, summer is very rainy: it rains on average one day out of three, but it is not impossible to see the sun coming out. In inland areas, there's some chance of thunderstorms in the afternoon.
The best time to visit Estonia is summer, from June to August. The temperatures are mild during the day and cool at night.
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