The Czech Republic, also called by its short-form name, Czechia.
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe,
, also known as Czechia.
It is bordered by Austria to the south, Germany to the west, Poland to the north, and Slovakia to the east.
Reason For Naming the country
The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from the Latin word "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii" (Gallic tribe). The current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which ultimately comes from the Czech word Čech.
The name comes from the Slavic tribe (Czech: Češi, Čechové) and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root "čel-", meaning "member of the people; kinsman", thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk (a person).
The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia (Čechy) in the west, Moravia (Morava) in the east, and Czech Silesia (Slezsko; the smaller, south-eastern part of historical Silesia, most of which is located within modern Poland) in the northeast.
Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown, Czechia, and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas.
When the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country.
The first use of Czech flag design was on 30 March 1920 (Czechoslovakia).
The current flag of the Czech Republic was adopted on 1 January 1993.
The national flag of the Czech Republic was formerly the flag of Czechoslovakia. When Czechoslovakia was dissolved, the Czech Republic adopted the three-color flag, while Slovakia adopted a new flag. The colors of the flag were inspired by the 1192 coat of arms of Bohemia.
The chevron was added to the flag to differentiate it from the flag of Poland.
Two equal horizontal stripes of white (top) and red with a blue isosceles
triangle based on the hoist side.
These colors were chosen based on the coat of arms of Bohemia,
which features a lion with a silver tail on a red field.
The white color represents the people of the Czech Republic and their
peaceful nature and honesty. The Red color represents courage,
determination, and loyalty of the nation.
The blue color represents alertness, truth, loyalty, and determination.
The Czechoslovakia flag – which is now the flag of the Czech Republic – was banned by the Nazis from 1939 to 1945. The flag used by the Czech Republic was designed by Jaroslav Kursa.
The Czech Republic has some of the highest numbers of atheists, being third highest behind China and Japan.
The Czech people have been historically characterized as "tolerant and even indifferent towards religion".
According to the 2011 census, 34% of the population stated they had no religion, 10.3% was Catholic, 0.8% was Protestant (0.5% Czech Brethren and 0.4% Hussite), and 9% followed other forms of religion both denominational or not.
From 1991 to 2001 and further to 2011 the adherence to Catholicism decreased from 39% to 27% and then to 10%; Protestantism similarly declined from 3.7% to 2% and then to 0.8%.
The Muslim population is estimated to be representing 0.2% of the population.
Czech is the official language spoken in the Czech Republic, and also the dominant language of the country.
During this period through to the 20th century, the Czech language was known as Bohemian language. The Czech language is classified under the Indo-European language family, and as a member of the Czech-Slovak language group, it is closely related to the Slovak language.
There are three main varieties of the Czech language, The varieties include Common Czech, Bohemian dialects, and Moravian dialects. Common Czech is the variety with the highest number of native speakers who are predominantly found around the Czech Republic’s capital city, Prague. Common Czech is widely used in print and electronic media, but the variety is yet to be codified. The Moravian dialect is another distinct variety of the Czech language.
Other languages spoken in the country include Slovak and Polish, which are spoken by a small percentage of the population. Slovak and Polish are closely related to the Czech language.
Slovak is spoken as the first language by a small population of Slovak people in the country. The Polish dialect spoken in the country is that of the Gorals people who inhabit the mountainous region on the Czech-Poland border.
Czech koruna (CZK)
+02:00 GMT. (Summer Time)
Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic.
The climate in the Czech Republic is moderately continental, with cold winters, during which the temperature is often below freezing, and warm summers, during which nights remain cool.
Rainfall is fairly frequent, but it's not abundant in most of the country. However, being rare in the winter and more plentiful in late spring and summer, it is generally sufficient for agriculture.
During winter, from December to February, in Prague and in the other Czech cities, temperatures hover around freezing (0 °C or 32 °F) or just below, the weather is often dull and cloudy, and light snowfalls can occur. On the contrary, outbreaks of cold from Russia can bring intense frosts, with temperatures dropping to -20/-25 °C (-4/-13 °F) in the worst moments.
In spring, from March to May, the weather is unstable, and the first warm days alternate with the return of cold weather: frosts and snowfalls can still occur in April, especially in the first part of the month. There's usually a turning point in the second half of May when the maximum temperatures regularly reach or exceed 18/20 °C (64/68 °F), and the weather becomes enjoyable.
Summer, from June to August, is usually warm. There is a moderate amount of sunny days, during which showers or thunderstorms can erupt in the afternoon. Even in mid-summer, there can be cool and rainy days, with highs around 20 °C (68 °F), but also hot periods, during which the temperature may exceed 30 °C (86 °F) for a few days. However, temperatures are usually pleasant, with highs around 22/24 °C (72/75 °F) and lows around 12/13 °C (54/55 °F).
Autumn, which goes from September to November, is initially pleasant in the first half of September, and then becomes progressively more cloudy and cold, with fairly frequent rains.
The best time to visit the Czech Republic runs from mid-May to mid-September, since it is the warmest, or at least the mildest, of the year. Temperatures can be cool in May and September, and sometimes in June, while they are normally higher in mid-summer July and August.
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