Cyprus or officially the Republic of Cyprus
Cyprus is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean,
Cyprus is bordered to the north by Turkey, to the east by
Syria and Lebanon and to the south by Egypt and to the north-west by
Cyprus is the third largest Mediterranean island after Sardinia and
Sicily, and ahead of Crete.
Geographically, Cyprus is closer to Asia but is historically and culturally
a European country.
It has four geopolitical divisions with different administrations.
The Republic of Cyprus occupies two-thirds of the island towards the south, and the Turkish Republic occupies the northern third of the island.
There are also two bases, Akrotiri and Dhekelia, that are under British sovereignty.
This UN-controlled buffer zone separates the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus.
Reason for naming the country
Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper "Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus", later shortened to Cuprum.
The standard word relating to Cyprus or its people or culture is Cypriot.
The terms Cypriot and Cyprian are also used, though less frequently.
The state's official name in Greek and Turkish literally translates as "Cypriot Republic" in English, but this translation is not used officially, in favor of "Republic of Cyprus" instead.
The national flag of the Republic of Cyprus was adopted in 1960 after gaining independence from the United Kingdom.
The flag was chosen by the President of the Republic Makarios III
and the Vice-President Fazil Kucuk as the result of the flag design competition. The national flag design competition was won by a
Turkish Cypriot teacher and artist Ismet Guney.
According to the Constitution, the flag should not have blue or red
colors (the colors of the flags of Greece and Turkey) and
should not feature a cross or a crescent. The flag should look neutral.
The flag of Cyprus consists of a yellow silhouette of the island and two crossed branches on a white background.
Yellow color refers to "copper resources" on the island.
The crossed branches represent the desire for peaceful coexistence between Greek Cypriots and Turks inhabiting the island.
Turkish Cypriots use their own flag, nevertheless it is not internationally recognized.
Cyprus has two official languages, Greek and Turkish.
Armenian and Cypriot Maronite Arabic are recognized as minority languages.
English is widely spoken and understood.
The Greek Cypriots are Eastern Orthodox Christians.
The Turkish Cypriots are Sunni Muslims.
There are also smaller Maronite, Armenian, Roman Catholic, and Anglican Christian communities on the island.
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Unitary presidential constitutional republic
Cyprus has a subtropical climate – Mediterranean and semi-arid type (in the north-eastern part of the island), with very mild winters (on the coast) and warm to hot summers.
Snow is possible only in the Troodos Mountains in the central part of island. Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry.
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